In 332 B.C. Alexander the Great was triumphantly crowned king of Egypt and founded present – day Alexandria. For a long time Alexandria was the most important port in the Hellenic Empire . Until it was burnt down during the siege of Caesar, the Library of Alexandria, then rich with millions of manuscripts, attracted eminent intellectuals. This was the place where Cleopatra was crowned Queen and where she lived with Anthony until their tragic death. In 619 this splendid city was conquered by the Persians after which it experienced a long period of decline. The fort of Qaitbey, dating back to the XV century, was built on the spot where one of the wonders of the ancient world, the lighthouse of the island of Pharos, once stood. This amazing lighthouse, built from white sandstone in 280 B.C., measuring 140 meters in height, was then the tallest building in the world; it was destroyed by an earthquake in 1307. Today the city’s beaches are well known for their seafront restaurants and night spots, as well as for their sunny climate, which is cooled by a constant breeze.